In Gorgias by Plato, Socrates goes on to summarize the main points of his argument against the beliefs of Callicles, mainly defining the aspects of the good and pleasure. He explains the relation of all of his lessons to one another, and how through this chain-like connection of them, one arrives at the conclusion that a good person lives a life of happiness, success, and fulfillment, while a bad person makes poor choices and is therefore unhappy.
Socrates begins to summarize his argument by explaining that the good and the pleasant are two different things, and that the reason we do pleasant things is the good, not the other way around. He then goes on to say that it takes “a specific state of goodness” in order to be good in anything, and that this goodness cannot be chaos, but it must be comprised of “organization and perfection”. It then follows that a proper mind that is good is organized and therefore self-disciplined, while the opposite unsavory mind is one in a state of disorder and self-indulgence. A self-disciplined person is also courageous and just, and because of this, success and happiness become products of their goodness.
While I found this chain of theories, beliefs, and conclusions of Socrates to be initially difficult to follow, I eventually realized that it was helpful that the ideas and arguments throughout this section were summarized in this format. I usually had trouble understanding the long-winded arguments of Socrates in this book mostly because of the many details and analogies he used, making it harder and harder for me to recall the initial arguments. However, this summary with a final conclusion following each inquiry truly helped me to see the reasoning as to why “the good” leads to a life of success and fulfillment while “the bad” results in a life of unhappiness.